Corruption and Weak Governance


Burma’s oil and gas revenues have been entered into the national accounts at an extremely undervalued exchange rate (e.g. 6 Kyats/US$ whereas the market rate is approximately 1,200 Kyats/US$) leading to the revenues being undervalued by approximately 200 percent with no accountability for the whereabouts of the “leftover” revenues. Before the new government was sworn in, the SPDC created tge “Special Projects Fund” that will be totally controlled by the Commander-in-chief for military concerns.


Domestically, Burma has no real environmental protection regulations or laws, although there are some basic legal frameworks that if implemented would improve prospects for environmental protection and community rights e.g. the Community Forest Instructions, the Land Acquisition Act, and the National Commission for Environmental Affairs (NCEA) draft Environmental Protection Act.

Housing, Land and Properties (HLP) rights are almost non-existent in Burma as the military is able to confiscate land with impunity. Absolute state control of land has been embedded in the 2008 Constitution.